Thursday, January 30, 2020

Culture and disease Essay Example for Free

Culture and disease Essay Diabetes is a common chronic disease whereby blood glucose or sugar levels in the blood are too high. Glucose mainly comes from foods that are consumed and by the help of insulin hormone they can get into the body cells to provide energy. Diabetes is classified into two types whereby in type 1 diabetes the body is unable to produce insulin whereby with type two the body does not make insulin or use it well in the body. Therefore, when body lacks enough insulin to convert sugar into energy, the sugars stay in the blood and this leads to the disease condition of diabetes. The two common types of diabetes are type 1 and type II diabetes. The condition mainly affects the old people due to lack of exercise and poor eating habits. Within the Italian community, the most common condition presented is diabetes mellitus but unlike other places in Italy it affects children between the ages of 0-14. Diabetes mellitus occurs when the pancreases is not capable of producing enough insulin which is meant for converting sugar into energy. When the cells are not responding well to the insulin which is produced a disease condition can arise. This leads to lack of absorption of glucose into the cell of the body and therefore high levels of glucose are found in blood. The disease manifest itself in different symptoms such as frequent urination, leathery weigh loss, hunger and excessive thirst. The disease can be controlled by exercising regularly and eating well balanced diet and avoiding a lot of sugary meals. Condition can be treated by administration of insulin so as to convert the excess sugar in the blood to energy so that it can be utilized by the body cell. This condition in severe state it can cause renal failure, heart disease, blindness, and stroke or limb amputation. There is quite a high prevalence rate of diabetes in Italy which is about 3-4% of its population and it increases with age. Most of them have type II which is diabetes mellitus and it occurs mainly at the onset of adulthood. Agent or causative agent of diabetes mellitus in Italy and elsewhere are not known since the disease occurs when the body can not produce insulin properly. Type I mainly occurs in young people whereby islet of langerharn cells stops producing insulin completely. In the report by John (2002), diabetes can also arise as a result of auto immune problem whereby the body turns against its own cells thus damaging them and rendering important processes to take place. Type II mainly affects the old people but it’s also gaining roots in younger generation due to lifestyle i. e. As a result of poor diet and sedentary lifestyle. In this type, the body is unable to utilize insulin in converting blood glucose levels to energy. Other causes of diabetes includes:- Obesity- This mainly occurs as a result of metabolic syndrome. It occurs as a result of extra energy. Diabetes can also be caused by excessive chronic stress due to excessive utilization of thoughts. Therefore, the best way to overcome all these causes is by living a healthy lifestyle exercising regularly and being cautious on what you are eating. Diabetes mellitus can also result due to hereditary factor whereby the disease is passed through the generation on families. It can also result due to the environmental factors of the surrounding. In genetic diabetes, these individuals have a common genetic marker Type I can occur as a result of vital infection or other microorganism which damages the islet of langerharns cells in the pancreas. Type II is mainly associated with old age, obesity and genetic factors. Italian population is said to be more vulnerable to diabetes than the rest of the European countries. This is much contributed by their lifestyle and the diet they utilize. One thing in Italy is that almost half of its population are said to be overweight and they are clinically tested and proved to be obese. Obese is one of the factors that caused diabetes. Their stare of obese prevents them from working and living normal life due to the bulkiness of their bodies. Failure to work and live normal life hindered them from obtaining financial help from state to help them fight the condition. There state of obesity is also contributed by their diet since they mainly consume fatty foods which are rich in carbohydrates and therefore they end up accumulating a lot of energy which is not utilized in their bodies leading to obesity (James, Kelly, 2007) [PR] There are quite a number of environmental factors which contributes to diabetes. One major environmental cause of diabetes is persistence organic pollution in the environment and insulin resistance. Around 1940, Italian was quite persistent in the use of DDP pesticide which was quite dangerous to crops for consumption and also human. Even after it was banned it remained in the environment causing more harm to human. They slowly biodegrade and finally enter into the food chain which is finally consumed by human. Therefore, high levels of persistence organic pollutants cause types II diabetes. Environmental contaminant which mainly causes diabetes acts through estrogen receptors which results to disruption of endocrine by the chemicals which are incorporated in pollutants. Due to the industrial activities of Italy these pollutants are quite many within the environment and have resulted to diabetes type II since they hinder utilization of insulin by the cells. The mode of transmission of diabetes underlies some of difference in concordance rate. In Italy one of the major transmission modes is through genetic transmission which is mainly from substantial differences in preference rate of the disease which is mostly present in the same ethnic group and to those people who are under similar environmental burden. Apart from genetic transmission, diabetes can posses the mode of inherited transmission. This is also genetically connected whereby phenotype and pathophysiological levels indicates that genetic compounds are likely to be heterogeneous. Different mode of transmission of diabetes can be evidenced in discrete families and it can act as an overall mode of inheritance. Therefore, diabetes is mainly transmitted through genetic since it’s a hereditary disorder and can be passed from one generation to another within the same family (altha, Edgren, 2007) [PR]. There are quite a number of control methods which are used to control diabetes in Italy. These modes of control can be used to minimize the risk of infection in most prone areas of Italy. The first main control measure is by ensuring that the right diet is consumed foods with high energy context should be avoided such as consumption of a lot of carbohydrates in diet, sugary things, snacks fatty foods, potatoes and other meals which have a lot of energy. These foods can lead to obesity which is one of the major causes of diabetes. Therefore if they are avoided the risk of one being obese is reduced which consequently reduce the prevalence rate of acquiring diabetes. Another control measure which needs to be taken into account and which is less practiced in Italy is exercising regularly. Regular exercise helps to burn excess fats and energy which makes one’s body physically fit. In Italy due to most of the people being overweight they do not exercise regularly and this makes their bodies to retain a lot of energy and therefore they become prone to infection. Regular exercise therefore can be used as a control measure in preventing diabetes among the Italians. Exercising healthy lifestyles is also another thing that can help in the control of diabetes this is mostly encouraged in those families who have a life history of diabetes since by doing so they minimize the risks of inheriting disease from their relatives. Government of Italy can also come in to ensure that the danger posed to its citizens of acquitting diabetes as a result of harmful environmental effects like the use of DDP. Therefore, government should ban the use of such chemicals which are harmful to human life and also to ecosystem at large. The main treatment methods used for curing and maintaining diabetes at minimum are change in diet, administration of oral medicine, and in other cases daily injection or insulin or Byetta are mainly used to improve insulin concentration in the blood so that it can convert excess glucose in the blood to energy so that it can be utilized by the cells. Apart from these medicines in most of the routine hospitals in Italy they use acarbose and metform which are known to reduce the disease prevalence in the country by increasing the levels of insulin in the blood. They also use sulfonylurea and combination of different drugs in treating diabetes. These form of treatment resulted to different complication among those who were treated. These complications ranged from mild to severe complications such as diabetic retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy, coronary artery disease, and nephropathy and obstatic arteriopathy of lower limbs. This showed that the medication had vast adverse effect on the health of patient which did not cure the disease but brought about more complication to patients. In determining the social and cultural influences of diabetes in Italy, anthropological methodology was employed which signified that:- They came up with ways of breaking the social network providing support of young people and this contrasted greatly with the ideas of health cares that held conferences, meeting and social support networks. Diabetes patients were excluded at any age without minding about their development they were categorized by age and not individual ability and preference. People were encouraged to take care of themselves at an early age which ensured that they were separated from the family and peer. According to Italian population, they considered the type of treatment offered inconvenient and mostly since it was associated with so many side effects to most of the patient who treatment was administered to and acted well on a very small percentage of patients. Therefore, patients in Italy do not believe that there is effective medication for diabetes and hence they opt for just natural ways of curing the diseases i. e. by use of diet exercising. Therefore since statistics shows that there is quite high prevalence rate of diabetes in Italy as a result of poor diet and lack of exercise. The country need to come up with ways of minimizing this incidence rate since their treatment methods are not quite effective and they end up causing move harm to patients. Reference: Altha Robert, Edgren Ken R, (2007), The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, (vol 5) Jacqueline L. Longe Ed 3 Detroit, Gale on line update. Anne Dornhorst Gary Frost, Robert Mosses, (2003), Nutritional Management of Diabetes Mellitus, New York: John Willey and Son. James Enger, Kelly, (July-August 2007), Dangerous diabetes obesity connections on How to reduce your Risks now, ‘’vibrant life’’: 6-11.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

case analysis :: essays research papers

Case Analysis For the past two months our sales on copper fitting has almost doubled due to the increasing demand from the market and the competitors ¡Ã‚ ¦ unsuccessful selling promotion. However, the problem rises from the overwhelming demand. Many back orders are just piled up on the warehouse manager ¡Ã‚ ¦s desk, and some of the customers lost their patience with us. What we really need right now is to limit or reduce the abnormal demand from the customers by raising the price of our products, but to gain a reputation from our customers, we should consider completing all the backorders with a original price. In a long term, the solution to solve this inventory shortage still relies on sufficient and on-time supply from our supplies. The main reason causing this tremendous and unusual high demand from the customer is the loosing market share of our competitors. Also, there is a possibility that some customers have the false expectation about the future price of the market. They heard the rumor about the cost of raw copper material might go up, so they predict that the price of the copper fitting should go up as well. Consequently, they start to make more purchases and store more inventories more than usual to save some money after the price of copper rises. After a serious discussion with our marketing and warehouse managers, we found a strategy to solve this inventory shortage crisis. We can purchase overstocked merchandises a very low cost from our competitors, since their business is slow, and they do not have enough cash flow. Since most of our competitors are local, we can save a bundle from the shipping and handling if we buy their products. But the disadvantage of this is that it might confuse our customers, because the products we purchase from other companies have their own logos. It might become an opportunity for our competitors to get free advertisement on their products through our market chain. We can also begin placing big orders to our supplier to prevent future shortage. However, downside of this is the risk for overstock inventory. The price of copper fitting is very hard for us to foresee, if the price of fitting drops due to other companies ¡Ã‚ ¦ new wave of promotions or other macroeconomic influences, then it wil l slow our sales down as well as our cash flow.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Life and Women Bearing Women Essay

Harwood’s elegy Mother Who Gave Me Life nostalgically explores the confronting concepts of the unavoidability of death and past bleak memories. Harwood explains explores the fragility e nature of life through the fabric motif symbolism; â€Å"fine threadbare linen† depicting symbolising the frailty image of her mother and the inevitability of her demise. Similarly, the reminiscent cosmic and iconic imagery depicts the futile effort to extend life â€Å"I prayed you would see live to see Halley’s Comet a second time. Furthermore, the reference to Halley’s Comet informs the audience of the persona’s short-lived hope for human immortality, on to be brought back to the reality of death. In addition, the author speaks ofoutlines a cycle of death and the continuity of life, shown through repetition that is as perpetuated through motherhood shown through repetition; â€Å"I think of women bearing women† which utilises gender specific diction to highlight the significance of women as a . Thus, the cycle of women bearing women is shown as a symbol of life and continuity. Likewise, through cumulative listing, Harwood provides an insight into the human history of motherhood, noting that that it transcends all temporal restraints indicated through cumulative listing â€Å"your mother, and hers and beyond†, and its ability to never cease. Though Harwood constantly implies of her desire to be able to extend life she acknowledges that in reality death is inevitable through the use of elegiac language; â€Å"you left the world so†. Finally through elemental references and natural imagery, Motherhood is portrayed to be infinite and as the link between prehistoric and current epochs elucidated through elemental references and natural imagery; â€Å"ice, rock, fire. † Hence, through the use of a variety of language techniques, Harwood is able to explore the challenging images of the inevitability of mortality through its inevitable nature whilst offering nostalgic recollections of her mother to signify the mportance of motherhood in establishing the continuity of life providing reader’s with a valued text. and cycle of mournful self-reflective thoughts through the use of motherhood, providing a valued text. The ode style poem Harwood’s diptich poem, Father and Child, investigates the notion centrality of seminal experiences in shaping one’s understanding of of a melancholic longing for the past whilst simultaneously acknowledging the inevitability of death through the rhyming pattern of its stanza, hence creating a valued text for the audience reader. The idea of childlike innocence and naivety immortality is expressed through the masculine diction â€Å"master of life and death† and power metaphor â€Å"a wisp-haired judge† exposing the child as an self-proclaimed vigilante. However, the self vilification of the child upon the his shooting of the owl is, expressed through a woeful reminiscent self reflection; â€Å"mirror my cruelty†. This portrayings the confronting topic of mortality through the physical pain of the owl and the emotional torment of the child. Another memory that highlights the both the challenging concepts of nostalgia and death, is the symbolic death of the child’s innocence demonstrated in the juxtaposition; â€Å"a lonely child who believe death clean and final, not this obscene. † Hence, this shows the naivety of the child, and the stinging memory of an un-romanticized death that has remained. Finally through the use of empathic language, the child’s harsh epiphany is shown â€Å"I†¦ wept, owl blind in the early sun. This implying lies the persona’s is transformation to show a new appreciation for morality. In â€Å"Nightfall† the second part of the poem the persona uses a collective pronoun to depict togetherness as a notion of eternity which transcends earthly beings; â€Å"we stand in time’s long promised land. † The nostalgic tone presents the audience with Harwood’s perspective of the unyielding process of time and the inevitability of death. This notion is emphasised through parallelism; â€Å"we pick our last fruits†, hence utilising showing the reader of the organic discourse which to presents the comparison of the ripeness of fruit to the infinite life cycle of birth and decay. Furthermore, inevitability of death is illuminated through past tense of the self reflective question â€Å"Who can be what you were? † implying that persona’s father has ceased to exist. Through the character of the child, it is clearly evident that the poem Father and Child explores the challenging ideas of nostalgia and mortality making the texts valued in the eyes of the reader.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Shot Through The Heart Passage - 1285 Words

Shot through the Heart Passage: â€Å"My father,Anchises,whenever the darkness shrouds the earth in its dank shadows,whenever the stars go flaming up in the sky,my father’s anxious ghost warns me in dreams and fills my heart with fear. My son Ascanius...i feel the wrong I do to one so dear,robbing him of his kingdom, lands in the West, his fields decreed by Fate. And now the messenger of the gods-I swear it, by your life and mine-dispatched by Jove himself has brought me firm commands through the racing winds. With my own eyes I saw him,clear, in broad daylight, moving through your gates.With my own eyes I drank his message in.Come,stop inflaming us both with your appeals.I set sail for Italy- all against my will.† Even from the start of his declaration,she has glared at him askance, her eyes roving over him ,head to foot, with a look of stony silence...till abruptly she cries out in a blaze of fury: â€Å"No goddess was your mother! No Dardanus sired your line,you traitor,liar,no, Mount Caucasus fathered you on its flinty,rugged flanks and the tigers of Hyrcania gave you their dugs to suck! Why hide it? Why hold back?To suffer greater blows? Did he groan when I wept?Even look at me? Never! Surrender a tear? Pity the one who loves him? What can I say first? So much to say. Now- neither mighty Juno nor Saturn’s son,the Father, gazes down on this with just,impartial eyes. There’s no faith left on earth! He was washed up on my shores,helpless,and I,Show MoreRelatedEssay on Compare and Contrast Heart of Darkness/Apocalypse Now1353 Words   |  6 Pageswhen I learned that it was sort of based on Joseph Conrads famous novella, Heart of Darkness. Conrads book, the tale of the sailor Marlowes African adventure, is a study on the evils of colonialism. The two stories at first glance do not seem very similar, but after examining both, it is quite shocking the degree of similarity between the two. 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