Sunday, December 29, 2019
The dilemma of whether or not to transfer juveniles to adult court has been a major topic, for many years, in the United States. Since 1899, judges have had the option to transfer juveniles to adult court. The major factor for transferring juveniles to adult court since then has been the seriousness of the offense. That being said, juveniles only make up a small portion of violent crimes in the United States. Only 16 percent of juvenile offenders in 2008 were arrested for violent crimes (Champion,2008). The problem is the determination of whether the crime is serious enough to be waived and transferred to adult court. Almost every state has statutory judicial waiver provisions, which grant juvenile judges the authority to transferÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In Florida, in 1996, Dona Bishop also preformed a study, which found that juveniles that were transferred were not less likely to reoffend, but had higher rates of recidivism. The findings suggested that transfers made little difference in deterring youths from reoffending. Adult processing of youths in criminal court actually increases recidivism rather than having any incapacitative effects on crime control and community protection. When it comes to transferring a juvenile to adult court age does play a major factor in most states, but on the other hand there are a lot of states that do not have a minimum age for transferring juveniles to adult court(Champion 2008). In most states children can be held accountable for their actions between the ages of thirteen and fifteen. Tennessee, for example, is one of the states does not have a minimum age for transfer law. Juveniles ages 6, 10, and 16 share similiarites and differences when in comes to transfers. One similarity they share is that in some states depending on their crime it would not matter what age they were which could lead to the transfer of the juvenile to adult court. The difference is that some states if you are a certain age like 6 or 10 yo u could not be tried as and adult noShow MoreRelatedThe Juvenile Court : An Adult Offender991 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Juvenile Court was established in 1899, under the Juvenile Court Act. The Act was established under three principles; children at a certain age are too young to be held accountable for their actions, they are not mentally competent, and they are more likely to be rehabilitated than an adult offender. However, in the past years juvenile are committing more violent crimes that suggest they should be tried in criminal courts rather than juvenile courts. It is my belief that if a child under theRead MoreJuvenile Offenders And The Adult Courts For Trial1102 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesother states, has provisions, provided for in the state laws, for the transfer of juvenile offenders to the adult courts for trial. The youth court has to follow the procedures, which are outlined in the statute, to include the minimum age of a juvenile, who is to be transferred to the adult cou rts, and the specific crimes for which such a transfer may take place. While I recognize, as the United States Supreme Court did in Roper v. Simmons, (2005), that children are immature, and easily led astrayRead MoreThe Origins Of Juvenile Justice1385 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof juvenile justice, from the house of refuge to the juvenile programs of today. Ans: In the early nineteenth century, the idea of reforming youth offenders took root in the United States. The House of Refuge in New York, which opened in 1824, was the first juvenile house of reform in the United States. This was the first attempt to house juvenile offenders in a separate facility and other States, like Maryland, would soon follow suit. The idea was not to punish juveniles offenders as adults butRead MoreJuvenile Transfer For Adult Courts : A Look At The Prototypes For Dangerousness, Sophistication Maturity, And Amenability925 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJuvenile Transfer to Adult Courts: A Look at the Prototypes for Dangerousness, Sophistication-Maturity, and Amenability to Treatment through a Legal Lens http://psycnet.apa.org.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/journals/law/8/4/373.html In transferring, a juvenile to adult court there is a certain amount of criteria that needs to be followed. The first criteria is if the juvenile is dangerous to the community, the maturity of the offender, and the psychological findings of the offender, it helps to determineRead MorePros And Cons Of Juvenile Offenders1024 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJuvenile Offenders or Adult Criminals? The act of participating in a crime by a minor is considered juvenile delinquency. This criminal act may be punished by many different means, designed specifically to deal with those who are under the statutory age of majority, which is the threshold of adulthood in law. However, many people argue that the severity of the juvenile prosecution system isnt high enough to order proper punishment. Therefore, juvenile offenders should be tried under adult laws.Read MoreJuvenile Courts Essay891 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSerious crimes such as murder, burglary and rape have raised questions as to whether the young offenders should face severe punitive treatment or the normal punitive measures in juvenile courts. Many would prefer the juveniles given harsh punishment in order to discourage other young people from engaging in similar activities and to serve as a lesson to these particular offenders. However, results from previous studies indicate such punitive measures were neither successful nor morally acceptableRead MoreEssay on Ramifications of the Juvenile Justice Waiver1537 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSocial workers in the court room play an major role in helping to decide whether or not a child should be charged as an adult for committing a crime while a minor. A minor being sent to juvenile court does not necessarily mean that the minor will be tried as an juvenile. It is also the responsibility of the court to determine if the minor should stay in juvenile court of be moved into adult criminal court. A social work assigned to the minor as well as the defense attorney, prosecutor, and judgeRead MoreThe Effects Of Charging Juveniles Of Adults1689 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescan we possibly try a juvenile as an adult when juveniles are proven to have diminished impulse control? This paper will discuss the history of charging juveniles of adults, discuss the issues that make this practice wrong while negating opposing arguments, and explain the various consequences that come with charging juvenile offenders as adults. When the United States was first established as an independent country, there was no such thing as Ã¢â¬Å"family courtÃ¢â¬ or even the juvenile justice system. ThereforeRead MoreThe Abolition Of The Juvenile Justice System1748 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn Canada, the juvenile court was established as a tribunal having the sole jurisdiction to hear, process as well as pass judgments for illegal behaviour that are committed by youths. This is a court system that fully distinguishes youths from adults as far as crime is concerned where their misconduct is labeled as delinquent acts rather than crime (Barry, 1987, p. 476). Youth are presumed to have less understanding of social norms and they are less aware of the long-term consequences of their behaviourRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography On Juvenile Offenders950 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBibliography 1. JUVENILE TRANSFER TO ADULT COURTS A Look at the Prototypes for Dangerousness, Sophistication-Maturity, and Amenability to Treatment Through A Legal Lens http://psycnet.apa.org.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/journals/law/8/4/373.html In transferring, a juvenile to adult court there is a certain amount of criteria that needs to be followed. The first criteria is if the juvenile is dangerous to the community, the maturity of the offender, and the psychology findings of the offender, it helps to
Saturday, December 21, 2019
Effects of Stress on Physical Illness Stress is an example of a behavior and experience explained in physiological and psychological terms. Recently, awareness has been heightened concerning the harmful effects of stress and how it can be successfully managed and prevented. Stults-Kolehmainen (2013) definition of stress focuses on some kind of force or mental pressure exerted upon an individual. Often, stress is often associated with anxiety, strain, tension, distress and fatigue (Childs de-Wit, 2013). The effects of stress comprise psychological and biochemical physiological changes, many of which are associated with ill health effects. Therefore, psychological and medical research findings are vital in aiding to understand this issue. Ropponen, Svedberg and Koskenvuo (2014) suggest that stress occurs as a result of interaction between a person and their environment. Rytwinski and Avena (2014) state that symptoms of stress can actually be evident in varied ways including; mentally, emotionally or physically. This pape r discusses the effect of stress on physical illness. The paper will start by showing the connection between the two terms and then the mechanisms that lead to correction of stress and body parts. Physical A situation that is stressful can easily cause the body to exhibit various symptoms such as inability to sleep, nervousness, tension headaches, alopecia, increased blood pressure, and problems associated with the digestive system (Twisk Ickmans, 2013).Show MoreRelatedThe Effects of Stress on Physical Illness Essay1816 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe Effects of Stress on Physical Illness Abstract Research has shown a connection between stress and physical illness. Furthermore, who becomes ill under pressure may be regulated by other factors such as personality type. The purpose of this project was to determine if there is a relationship between stress and illness. Another motive for this project was to investigate whether or not correlations between illness, personality type, and/or stress is evident. Twenty-one studentsRead MoreEssay on Stress Management649 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesStress Management Responses to stressors present different impacts on each individual. Stressors have a physical and psychological effect on people although some people seem to be much less effected by stress being able to withstand high levels of stress almost as if there daily lives depend on it. Even though it is accepted stress is with us from are waking moment to the minute we sleep, almost all individuals through time suffer physical or psychological illness. IndividualRead MoreWhat Is The Mental Health? Essay1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhat is the mental health? Mental health embraces emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It has an effect on thinking, feeling, and acting. It also helps to define how people handle stress and make choices. Mental health is momentous through the stages of life, from childhood and adolescence via adulthood. In the life, if someone experience mental health problems, it has an effect on thinking, behaviour, and mood. Many causes contribute to mental health problems, containing: Life experiencesRead MoreThe Human Body And Mind1350 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesnewly diagnosed condition. Research has found that as a whole, individuals will experience detrimental effects to their physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioural states when this situation occurs (Leming G, 2015). These effects, if not identified and monitored, could add further psychological impact to the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s physical health and mental state possibly creating greater negative effects to the body, than the poor diagnosis itself (Rogers-Clark, McCarthy Martin-McDonald, 2005). The humanRead MoreThe Nature of Stress Essay1263 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Nature of Stress Much of our understanding of the nature of stress can be traced back to the work of Hans Seyle in the 1930s. Seyles research on rats and other animalsRead MoreOutline and Evaluate Research Into the Relationship Between the Immune System and Stress Related Illness827 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesrelationship between the immune system and stress related illness The main function of the immune system is to protect the body from infectious agents such as viruses and other toxins. The immune system can fail us in two ways-either by becoming under-vigilant, letting infections enter the body, or over-vigilant, so that it is the immune system itself, rather than an infectious agent that causes illness. Most studies of the relationship between stress and the immune system have focussed on acute(iRead MoreTodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Soldier: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Essay1599 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWe usually think of war injuries as being physical, although one of the most common war injuries is Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and the effects can be devastating. PTSD is an emotional illness classified as an anxiety disorder and usually develops because of a terribly frightening, life-threatening, or otherwise highly unsafe event, often experienced in combat. Although this condition has likely existed since humans have endured trauma, PTSD has only been recognized as a formal diagnosisRead MoreWhat is Stress Essay856 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesStress is the combination of psychological, physiological, and behavioral reactions. Most people have a response to events that challenge or threaten them. Stress good and bad. Good stress is called eustress. According to Hans Selye, a series of physiological reactions to stress occurring in three phases. Those phases are alarm, resistance, and exhaustion. This is also known as the general adaptation syndrome. General adaptation syndrome describes the bodys short-term and long-term reactionRead MoreStress and Eustress: Adult Nurse and Mental Health Nursing1535 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagespsychologistÃ¢â¬â¢s approach stress and define it as a bodily response to demands, physically and emotionally; the behavioural response to events that are threatening and challenging to a person. According to Hans Seyle (1956), he states that stress is Ã¢â¬Ëthe nonspecific response of the body to any demandsÃ¢â¬â¢. The eustress is also used to describe stress as arousing and exciting. For example a nurse would use stress in order to perform well. It might be true suffering from stress which is unbearable, unpleasantRead MoreThe Effects Of Stress On The Human Body968 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfrom another , from the fingerprints to the eye and hair color, every human being experiences stress at some point within their life, but what exactly is stress? Stress is Ã¢â¬Å"a state of mental tension and worry caused by problems in life, work, etc.; something that causes strong feelings of worry or anxietyÃ¢â¬ (Definition of Stress). Angela Farrehi also says this about what stress is and some of its causes, Ã¢â¬Å"Stress has been conceptualized in a number of ways. Specifically, it can be conceptualized as an
Thursday, December 12, 2019
For this task I will be discussing the effects of un-monitoring cost and budgets, and seeing how business could suffer if they are not look after responsibly. I will show disadvantages of not using this method properly. A cost of goods is what it should spend to make products. At the start of each period budget of production will be ready, using cost of goods and predicted production quantities. At the end of each period a variance report is prepared to compare the budget costs with the actual costs. The variance report can tell how well Gardiner Store PLC did at carrying out their budget aims. A favorable variance shows that actual costs are less than budgeted costs. An adverse variance is just the opposite actual costs are bigger than the budgeted costs. By using a budget the management team can predict their future costs and cash needs, plan production, etc. We will write a custom essay sample on Business level or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Variance reports can help the managers to identify specific functional areas where they came in either over or under budget. They will try to repeat their successes and get rid of their failures. Each month they hope to become a little more efficient. If budgets and costs are unmonitored Two things mainly: Costs can run out of control, causing organisations to spend more than they need to, run inefficiently, reduce their potential profit or at worst turn a profit into a loss, and budgets can be overstated and if an organisation actually spends less than it expects to in a particular area than those funds can be made available elsewhere in the business. If costs arent monitored effectively such opportunities can be missed. If budgets are not controlled there are serious implications to the well-being: They will have to cut cost: The business need to do this because they havenÃ¢â¬â¢t monitor the businessÃ¢â¬â¢ budget, so the actual costs will be higher than the budget costs, which gives out an adverse result on April (shown on the budget table of M4). So they need to cut cost to cover the loss on April by May. They will have to make people redundant: People redundant can help the business to cut costs, but there will be not enough staff to work in the supermarket, which some service canÃ¢â¬â¢t be carried out to customers. But because firing some staffs can help cut a lot, so they may need to take action. Other competitors will sell more products: Because the supermarket of Gardiner Stores PLC doesnt have that much money for input because they need to cut costs to cover the loss of profit on April, also they make people redundant (explained above), so their competitors will take advantages on them, so therefore they will sell more product. Changes in costs Variances can arise for a large number of reasons: Errors in estimating Poor management of resources Unforeseen price changes Equipment breakdown Labor problems Poor planning Shortage of raw materials Budgeting and Variance accounting presume that managers should fix problems, not bury or hide them. It also presumes that these problems are short-term problems, and can be effectively controlled in the future. Sometimes there is a change in actual costs that necessitates a change in standard costs. For instance, a new labor contract could increase total labor costs by a predictable amount. Standard labor costs should be re-calculated to reflect the new actual labor costs. Once a new standard cost is calculated, future variances will be correctly reflected in the monthly variance report. If standard costs are not updated periodically, the monthly reports can show unrealistic favorable or unfavorable variances. The purpose of variances and budgeting is to give management an effective tool for controlling costs. But the system must be continually reviewed and kept up to date. This is also important, because variances are entered into the books as journal entries, so they must be based on reliable main rules. These rules must pass the critical eye of the companys certified auditors, so they must be current and correct. Business Level free essay sample Marks and Spencer face many ethical issues in their daily activities and these affect the public and their business in different ways. Society and Ethical Views When Marks and Spencer set the prices of their products, consumers think why they are priced at that amount. If Marks and Spencer source products from under paid farmers in China then this will be considered unethical in Britain as most consumers who shop at MS want a Ã¢â¬Å"fair tradeÃ¢â¬ . Ensuring MS source their products from fair trade organisations their customers will be encouraged to shop there as they are doing their bit to prevent poverty in other countries. Marks and Spencer donate 1% of their net profit to a charity. MS have to take in to consideration what charity would be ethically right to donate to. For example, donating to an organisation such as BNP would cause controversy and would be unethical due to the partiesÃ¢â¬â¢ extreme views that do not reflect the whole of society. We will write a custom essay sample on Business Level or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Choosing a charity such as Cancer Research would be more ethical as it is a charity which most of society agree on. This will encourage customers to shop at MS as it they know that some of the proceeds go to a good cause that they believe in. Marks and SpencerÃ¢â¬â¢s recruitment process aims to be fair and not to discriminate groups of society. For example, if an old person applied to a job at a manager level and a middle aged person applied for the same job, it would be unethical to choose the middle aged person based on his or her age alone. Choosing their staff with ethical decisions will benefit MS as they will not be accused of discrimination and wonÃ¢â¬â¢t gain bad press because of it. When Marks and Spencer create their electrics they must make sure that they conform to health and safety regulations. If a batch of products were to get sent out into stores with safety hazards on them it would be down to MS whether to recall it or not. The ethical decision would be to recall the products and protect their customers from any harm, if a customer was to use a faulty product and get damaged from it then MS could be liable to being sued and having negative press printed about the company. Also, the trust would be ruined and people will be cautious to shop at MS. When Marks and Spencer bid to secure contracts overseas with suppliers there are financial ethics taking place. In some countries it is Ã¢â¬Å"okÃ¢â¬ to bribe businesses for contracts and this is an ethical decision MS has to take when sealing contracts. If they bribe suppliers for contracts then they run the risk of being exposed and having bad press, this will be frowned upon in BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s society and customers will not want to support such activities. When Marks and Spencer trial their beauty products they have ethics in production to consider. For example, testing eye liner on animals and genetically modifying ingredients will clash with some of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs and ethics. Groups of society that donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe in animal testing will be active in creating bad press about Marks and SpencerÃ¢â¬â¢s product creation process. When Marks and Spencer need new software (or intellectual property) they face the ethical issue of whether to torrent (software piracy) or buy it legitimately. Obviously, using a torrent will save money however should information leak out that they have done this activity in order to acquire the latest software it will result in bad press and a lack of trust from ociety towards MS. Ethics in finance: People who work in finance are placed in a fiduciary position of trust; first, by their employers, if theyre not self-employed, but more importantly, by members of the general public, over whose assets they are given control. Their daily business is directly working with other peoples money, or doing other things that affect the publics investment decisions, and if they are unethical people, their clients, and the public, are at hig h risk for being cheated. Finance workers are entitled to reasonable fees for their services, but they are not entitled to engage in investment activity solely to generate more commissions for them, or engage in any other self-dealing while they are doing their jobs on behalf of their clients. And they have to exercise reasonable care when doing their jobs. Bribery Ã¢â¬â itÃ¢â¬â¢s a form of corruption. This is the straightforward use of financial muscle to gain unfair advantage over others. An example would be attempting to gain planning permission by giving Executive pay Ã¢â¬â excessive pay for top executives is one problem that will not go away. It is a response to public concern about pay rises that are unrelated to effort, plus a number of high-profile cases of failed executives getting pay-offs of up to US $100 million and others having stock options backdated to give them a share of earlier capital gains. This at least tells shareholders exactly what their top executives are earning. Insider trading Ã¢â¬â insider trading is the trading of a corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s stock or other securities by individuals with potential access to non-public information about the company. Such a trade is motivated by the possibility of generating extraordinary gain with the help of non-public information. It gives the trader an unfair advantage over other traders in the same security. Lobbying Ã¢â¬â Lobbying is attempting to influence the legislative or administrative decisions of state government by oral or written communication with any elective state official, agency official, or legislative employee. Lobbying includes the time spent in preparation for such communication and appearances at public hearings or meetings or service on a committee in which such preparation or communication occurs. Ethics in human resource management: Human resource management deals with manpower planning and development related activities in an organisation. Arguably it is that branch of management where ethics really matter, since it concerns human issues specially those of compensation, development, industrial relations and health and safety issues. There is however sufficient disagreement from various quarters. One group of thought leaders believes that since in business, markets govern the organisational interests and these interests are met through people, the latter are therefore at the highest risk. They believe that markets claim profits in the name of stakeholders and unless we have protocols, standards and procedures the same will develop into a demon monopolising markets and crushing human capital; HR ethics are become mandatory. Ethics in production: There are certain processes involved in the production of goods and a slight error in the same can degrade the quality severely. In certain products the danger is greater i. e. a slight error can reduce the quality and increase the danger associated with consumption or usage of the same exponentially. The dilemma therefore lies in defining the degree of permissibility, which in turn depends on a number of factors. Bhopal gas tragedy is one example where the poisonous gas got leaked out due to negligence on the part of the management. Usually many manufactures are involved in the production of same good. They may use similar or dissimilar technologies for the same. Setting a standard in case of dissimilar technologies is often very difficult. There are many other factors that contribute to the dilemma, for example, the involvement of the manpower, the working conditions, the raw material used etc. Social perceptions also create an impasse sometimes. For example the use of some fertiliser by cola companies in India recently created a national debate. The same cold drinks which were consumed till yesterday became noxious today because of a change in the social perception that the drinks are not fit for consumption. Planned obsolescence Ã¢â¬â Planned obsolescence or built-in obsolescence in industrial design is a policy of planning or designing a product with a limited useful life, so it will become obsolete, that is, unfashionable or no longer functional after a certain period of time. Planned obsolescence has potential benefits for a producer because to obtain continuing use of the product the consumer is under pressure to purchase again, whether from the same manufacturer (a replacement part or a newer model), or from a competitor which might also rely on planned obsolescence. For an industry, planned obsolescence stimulates demand by encouraging purchasers to buy sooner if they still want a functioning product. Built-in obsolescence is used in many different products. There is, however, the potential backlash of consumers who learn that the manufacturer invested money to make the product obsolete faster; such consumers might turn to a producer (if any exists) that offers a more durable alternative. Estimates of planned obsolescence can influence a companys decisions about product engineering. Therefore, the company can use the least expensive components that satisfy product lifetime projections. Such decisions are part of a broader discipline known as value engineering. Ethics in sales and marketing: To generate sales, sometimes businesses try to employ unethical means. They can do this in a number of ways: Spamming Ã¢â¬â Spam, or unsolicited e-mail advertising, has become one of the more pervasive ethical issues in marketing since the emergence of the Internet in the mid-1990s. Government regulations and e-mail inbox filters have helped but have not eliminated the problem of companies and marketers flooding your inbox with marketing and sales pitches. Generally, a company should have an existing relationship with you or get formal approval from you before sending you e-mail marketing messages. Spoofing Ã¢â¬â emails that appear to have been originated from one source when they were actually when they were sent from another. Individuals sending junk emails or spam typically want the email to appear as though it is from a real address, which may not really exist. This way the email cannot be traced back to the originator. Raising their own status This happens when business place false recommendations or blogs onto a website. These recommendations either come from paid individuals employed by marketing companies or are employees of business pretending to be satisfying customers.